G U E S T A R T I C L E
Blast from the Past
October Pub Night: Panel Discussion of TQM philosophies
Capital Quality News, November 1993
On the evening of October 14th, 35 people enjoyed a panel discussion of TQM philosophies in an informal relaxed atmosphere. Among the attendees were three distinguished guests, employees of our guest company (Cognis Incorporated). John Burns, Bart Sheehan and Paul Hayes enjoyed the evening and promised to return.
Pauline Sauvé, President of Strategik Management Consultants , led the discussion with an overview of TQM, highlighting the similarities between all methodologies. Pauline managed to moderate the panel discussion very well, which was designed to demonstrate the differences between the Crosby, Deming and Juran approaches to TQM. These philosophies were represented by David Hutton, David Carlson and L. Coll. Paul Mallet, respectively.
The Phil Crosby Association (PCA) was established in 1979 and expanded into Europe through the mid 80s. Though Crosby was known for his moto « Quality is Free », it was obvious that the training costs woukd not be! The PCA was recently purchased by Proudfoot, the Crosby image and process have remained unchanged.
Crosby has been known for his emphasis on philosophy. 4 absolutes, 14 steps and the 6 C’s. The most famous of these are the 4 absolutes :
- Conformance to Requirements
- System of Prevention
- Performance Standard of Zero Defects
- Measurement of the Cost of Quality (COQ) by Prices of Non-Conformance (PONC) and the Price of Conformance (POC)
Phil Crosby is now retired, wealthy, while his philosophy continues to affect businesses around the world.
Edward Deming began to make his mark on the globe after World War II, when the Japanese invited him to share his expertise in Statistical Process Control (SPC) and statistical sampling techniques. The nation was rebuilt and the rest is history.
Dr. Deming is known for the Quality Management Cycle of Plan-Do-Check-Act, or variations thereof, though he often credits others for improving on this model. His theory of Management includes :
- Systems Theory : Processes working together
- Theory of Variation : Predictability of the process
- Theory of Knowledge : How understanding is achieved.
- Psychology : People Interactions
The Deming process is made up of his famous « 14 points » and caution is presented in the form of « 7 deadly diseases » His key recommendations are to eliminate numerical goals ( lest you limit potential) and optimize the system through empowered individuals.
Joseph Juran’s philosophy, like Deming’s, grew out of a background of quality control, manufacturing processes, and statistical methods, and had its roots in the reconstruction of Japan. In 1951, Juran published the 1st edition of the Quality Control Handbook. Today, the 4th edition is 3 inches thick and is often referred to as the « Quality Bible ». In 1979, he founded the Juran Institute and today continues to give seminars around the world at the age of 89.
Juran is most famous for his « Quality Trilogy », which follows the finance model of Plan, Control and Improve. Thé Juran process is described in his « 10 signs to Quality Improvement ». He is also known for the Juran Quality Institute ( Problem Solving) Journey and the Break-through Sequence.
On the subject of benefits, it was felt that Crosby is the most generic, since the Deming and Juran philosophies lend themselves best to the manufacturing processes. Deming is the only philosopher who is not backed up by an organization ( as are the PCA and Juran Institutes), so he is more free to evolve and improve his philosophy with the changing times. This Deming Theory of management is not inhibited by a rigid set of of procedures. Though Deming is the most widely quoted, he is the most likely to give credit to others. Juran has the greatest extent of resources available and is able to link management practices and lower level processes in a more comprehensive manner.
On the topic of rewards and motivation, Deming discourages individual recognition. He explains that if a process is in a state of statistical control, results are due to random chance, not attributable to individual efforts. Crosby, on the other hand, believed in elaborate celebrations and monetary rewards for individual achievements. Juran believes that rewards are motivating, but non-monetary rewards are more effective.
In summary, there is a joke that goes like this :
- Deming will tell you what is wrong
- Crosby will motivate everyone to do something
- Juran will fix the problem!
In reality, any organization must review all the philosophies and literature available. Every organization should then pick and choose pieces to custom make the ideal TQM process that will meet their needs.
The post has been contributed by Ruth Stanley, Chair, ASQOttawa Valley Section. You can contact Ruth using our contact form.
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